The rectified truncated icosahedron is a surprising new polyhedron discovered by Craig S. Kaplan. It has a total of 60 triangles, 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons as faces.
This is an image of the Clebsch surface, created by Greg Egan. The Clebsch surface owes its fame to the fact that while all smooth cubic surfaces defined over the complex numbers contain 27 lines, for this particular example all the lines are real, and thus visible to the eye. However, it has other nice properties as well.
This is the Hoffman–Singleton graph, a remarkably symmetrical graph with 50 vertices and 175 edges. There is a beautiful way to construct the Hoffman–Singleton graph by connecting 5 pentagons to 5 pentagrams.
This is the free modular lattice on 3 generators, as drawn by Jesse McKeown. First discovered by Dedekind in 1900, this structure turns out to have an interesting connection to 8-dimensional Euclidean space.
This image by intocontinuum show how you can take 8 perfectly rigid regular tetrahedra and connect them along their edges to form a ring that you can turn inside-out.
The extended binary Golay code, or Golay code for short, is a way to encode 12 bits of data in a 24-bit word in such a way that any 3-bit error can be corrected, and any 7-bit error can at least be detected. The easiest way to understand this code uses the geometry of the dodecahedron, as shown in this image by Gerard Westendorp.
A little-known result in Newton’s Principia Mathematica is that by adding an inverse cube force to the usual force of gravity, you could change the angular motion of a planet while leaving its radial motion unchanged. This can have strange effects, shown in the animation here.