This picture by Tilman Piesk shows the 15 partitions of a 4-element set, ordered by refinement. Finer partitions are connected to coarser ones by lines going down. In the finest partition, on top, each of the 4 elements is in its own subset. In the coarsest one, on bottom, all 4 elements are in the same subset.
The Kepler problem concerns a particle moving under the influence of gravity, like a planet moving around the Sun. Newton showed the orbit of such a particle is an ellipse, assuming it doesn’t fly off to infinity. There are many ways to prove this, but the most illuminating is to reparametrize time and think of the orbit as a circle in 4 dimensions. When the circle is projected down to 3-dimensional space, it becomes an ellipse. The animation in this post, created by Greg Egan, shows how this works.